IBM Wheelwriter Printer Option


I just uploaded a small project to GitHub which is an FPGA implementation of a “Printer Option” for some of the IBM Wheelwriter typewriters.  It allows the user to connect to this typewriter via a RS232 serial port. You can cut and paste into the terminal window (9600 baud) to allow using the typewriter as a printer!

Here’s the link:   Wheelwriter Printer Option

And here’s a short video demonstration:  FPGA Demo of Wheelwriter Printer Option





MicroCore Labs – IBM Wheelwriter Printer Option
This is an FPGA project which allows RS232 access to an IBM Wheelwriter Typewriter.

Using a terminal running at 9600 baud (9600,n,8,1), the user can directly send characters to the typewriter.  They can also cut and paste long documents into the terminal, which will be printed by the typewriter. The FPGA uses XON/XOFF for flow control as well as a 1,000 character deep FIFO so that no characters are lost.

It has been tested on an IBM Wheelwriter 5, however other IBM typewriters such as the Wheelwriter 3 and 6 may also work. The only connection needed to the typewriter is via two pins within the access panel at the top rear of the typewriter.

While any FPGA can be used, this project uses the Lattice XO2 Breakout Board which contains a USB interface that provides  power and a RS232 serial port. To use the USB serial port, the user will need to populate the two resistors R14 and R15 which connect the RS232 TX and RX lines between the FPGA and the FTDI USB IC.

Alternatively, a second set of RS232 TX and RX pins are available which can be connected to any 3.3V compatible serial port. This was provided to allow to user to connect any type of serial port, including vintage computers. Just make sure the TTL signalling out of the converter is 3.3V to the FPGA. Both serial connections can be connected at the same time, however only one can be used at a time. In both cases, the baud rate is fixed to 9600 baud only.


1) RS232 RX controller – fixed to 9600 baud
2) RX character FIFO – 1,000 characters deep – flags used to signal RS232 transmit of XON/XOFF
3) RS232 TX controller – fixed to 9600 baud – Used to send XON/XOFF flow control characters
4) Main Controller – Pulls new characters from the RX_FIFO and sends the appropriate command sequence to the IBM TX_FIFO
5) IBM Bus Controller – Pulls commands from the FIFO and sends them serially over the IBM_BUS
6) Bus Snooper – Used to convert IBM serial data into parallel data to be observed on a logic analyzer. Not used for the design, just for debug

– The IBM_BUS uses 5 volt logic, so a 5V to 3.3V bidirectional level shifter must be used. I used a Xilinx EPLD board,
but any technology will work that provideds this functionality.
– Both serial ports on the FPGA have light internal pullups to keep them from changing when not connected.

– The pinout for the FPGA is described in the mclwr1.lpf file
– The IBM Wheelwriter pins of interest are: 4=GND and 5=IBM_BUS. Pin#1 is on the left when looking at the typewriter from the front.


IBM Wheelwriter Printer Option


I have completed the framework for the MCLR5 Quad-issue Supersclar RISC v core. It supports most of the RV32I Base Instruction Set with exceptions for the timers and shifters. I have targeted the core to the Xilinx Ultrascale+ and the Intel Stratix-10 series FPGAs.

Each of the MCLR5 RISC V cores is implemented as a combinational, single-cycle ALU.  Up to four register updates can occur per clock cycle and results are are forwarded to the appropriate cores when appropriate within the same clock cycle.  This just means that if core0 updates r4 and core1 uses r4 as an input, the updated value will be passed to core1.

Loads and stores are handled by core0 and are treated initially as JUMP opcodes. The MCLR5 performs a JUMP to the address containing the LOAD/STORE instruction which aligns it with core0. Instructions following the LOAD/STORE are blocked until the LOAD/STORE is completed.

The User’s Program ROM is four-opcodes wide and dual-ported so any instruction alignment is supported. Only one clock is consumed for JUMP opcodes. Because the ALU is single-cycle, no other pipelining penalties are incurred.

The Quad-issue Superscalar MCLR5 achieves nearly 90Mhz when targeted to Stratix-10 or Ultrascale+.  A Single MCLR5 can reach over 250Mhz.  The relatively slow timing of the quad-issue core is due to the very long combinaional paths through all four cores which is not surprising.  I am actually impressed that these clock frequencies were reached at all.  🙂

It is hard to come up with a picture to illustrate a quad-issue CPU core, so I will just post a screen-shot of a sixteen ADD r1 , r1 , 1  instructions with a SW stuck in the middle.






MCLR5 Quad-issue Superscalar RISC V initial results

Im working on a Quad-issue Superscalar RISC V processor at the moment and I thought I would share an exciting milestone….

This is a simulation snippet of four RISC V ADDI r1,r1,0x1 instructions in a row. The core fetches and executes the four instructions simultaneously and writes it back to r1, all in one clock cycle.    Neat!!!

The MCLR5 is a quad-issue superscalar RISC V processor core with single-cycle instruction timing.  There are four combinational RISC V ALU cores which process four consecutive instructions and can update up to four registers per clock cycle. The core should come fairly close to an aggregate IPC of nearly four.



MCLR5 Quad-issue Superscalar RISC V initial results

MCL65 works in Apple II+

Received the Apple II+ in the mail today but it did not come with any diskettes. I used a terrific tool, ADTPro, to transfer disk images from my PC over to the Apple using the cassette port. It is slow but works great! I was able to transfer over DOS 3.3 and a few games such as Castle Wolfenstein, Zaxxon, and Lode Runner.  They all appear to work fine with the MCL65 and I will take some pictures and video in a day or so.

MCL65 works in Apple II+